Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) is an essential technique for the direct analysis of bulk solids, for elemental surface analysis and for the depth profiling of thin films and industrial coatings. The technique has shown rapid growth in numbers of instruments, in breadth of applications, in improved quantification in recent years and is now a recognised technique within the ISO, with two international standards. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy: A Practical Guide takes the reader on a journey through instrument operation, sample preparation, analysis, and reporting results. It follows two sets of samples through the whole process of analysis, brass samples for bulk analysis, and zinc-coated steel for depth profiling. Procedures are consistent with ISO standards and each step is loaded with hands-on tips and theoretical insight. The book also includes unique data tables on spectral interferences, molecular bands, self-absorption and relative sputtering rates.This book is designed for those using or managing GDOES instruments and for students interested in learning the technique from a hands-on perspective. It is also an invaluable aid to those considering the purchase of a GDOES instrument, or those using GDOES results, to understand in detail how the technique works and what is involved in maintaining the instrument and achieving high quality results.
This book is addressed to designers of photodetectors and photodetecting systems, designers of focal plane arrays, charge-coupled devices, specialists in IR technologies, designers of optoelectronic detecting, guiding and tracking systems, systems for IR direction finders, lidars, lightwave communication systems, IR imagers. All these specialists are united by one common purpose: they are all striving to catch the weakest possible optical signal. The most important characteristic of photosensitive devices is their detectivity, which determines the lowest level of optical signal they are able to detect above the noise level. These threshold characteristics define the most important tactical and technical parameters of the entire optoelectronic system, such as its range, resolution, precision. The threshold characteristics of optoelectronic system depend on many of its components; all designers agree, however, that the critically responsible part of the system is the photodetector . By the end of the 1960s the physicists and the engineers were able to overcome many obstacles and to create photodetectors (at least single-element or few-element ones) which covered all the main optical bands (0. 4 . . . 2,2 . . . 3, 3 . . . 5,8 . . . 14 J. . Lm), carried out the detection almost without any loss (the quantum yield being as high as 0. 7 . . . 0. 9), and reduced the noise level to the lowest possible limit.
A Unique, Cutting-Edge Approach to Optical Filter Design With more and more information being transmitted over fiber-optic lines, optical filtering has become crucial to the advanced functionality of today's communications networks. Helping researchers and engineers keep pace with this rapidly evolving technology, this book presents digital processing techniques for optical filter design. This higher-level approach focuses on filter characteristics and enables readers to quickly calculate the filter response as well as tackle larger and more complex filters. The authors incorporate numerous theoretical and experimental results from the literature and discuss applications to a variety of systems-including the new wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology, which is fast becoming the preferred method for system upgrade and expansion. Special features of this book include:<br> * The theory underlying various architectures that can approximate any filter function<br> * Filter design techniques applicable to a broad range of materials systems-from silica to fiber to microelectromechanical (MEM) systems<br> * Design examples relevant to filters for WDM systems and planar waveguide devices<br> * 250 figures as well as problem sets for use in graduate-level studies
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