Languages can be similar in many ways - they can resemble each other in categories, constructions and meanings, and in the actual forms used to express these. A shared feature may be based on common genetic origin, or result from geographic proximity and borrowing. Some aspects of grammar are spread more readily than others. The question is - which are they? When languages are in contact with each other, what changes do we expect to occur in their grammatical structures? Only an inductively based cross-linguistic examination can provide an answer. This is what this volume is about. The book starts with a typological introduction outlining principles of contact-induced change and factors which facilitate diffusion of linguistic traits. It is followed by twelve studies of contact-induced changes in languages from Amazonia, East and West Africa, Australia, East Timor, and the Sinitic domain. Set alongside these are studies of Pennsylvania German spoken by Mennonites in Canada in contact with English, Basque in contact with Romance languages in Spain and France, and language contact in the Balkans. All the studies are based on intensive fieldwork, and each cast in terms of the typological parameters set out in the introduction. The book includes a glossary to facilitate its use by graduates and advanced undergraduates in linguistics and in disciplines such as anthropology.
Calculations on lens systems are often marred by the unjustifiable use of the small-angle approximation. This book describes in detail how the ray and wave pictures of lens behaviour can be combined and developed into a theory capable of dealing with the large angles encountered in real optical systems. A distinct advantage of this approach is that Fourier optics appears naturally, in a form valid for arbitrarily large angles. The book begins with extensive reviews of geometrical optiks, eikonal functions and the theory of wave propagation. The propagation of waves through lenses is then treated by exploiting the close connection between eikonal function theory and the stationary phase approximation. Aberrations are then discussed, and the book concludes with various applications in lens design and analysis, including chapters on laser beam propagation and diffractive optical elements. Throughout, special emphasis is placed on the intrinsic limitations of lens performance. The many practical insights it contains, as well as the exercises with their solutions, will be of interest to graduate students as well as to anyone working in optical design and engineering.
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